Sunday, April 1, 2018

The VQ of Plant Intelligence

April 1, 2018

“Plant Intelligence” has been greatly debate by plant biologists and philosophers alike [1–9]. Yet throughout this debate, no measure of plant intelligence has been proposed.

Indeed, if plant intelligence exists, it must be quantifiable similar to human intelligence [10].

Towards this end, the Daily Plant introduces the VQ, the "Vegetal Quotient", which will be the plant equivalent of IQ.

We assume that some plants will have a high VQ, akin to genius plants, while others will be vegetally challenged, and have a relatively low VQ.

To make the VQ statistically valid, we need your help. Please fill in the VQ form below. Just as Binet’s original test has been modified over the past century [10], we realize that this test is only a beginning. However with your help we can make the VQ as valid a description of plant intelligence as IQ is of human intelligence.

If the form below does not work, click here.

Much thanks for your help!

Bibliography
(1) Alpi, A., Amrhein, N., Bertl, A., Blatt, M.R., Blumwald, E., Cervone, F., Dainty, J., De Michelis, M.I., Epstein, E., Galston, A.W., Goldsmith, M.H.M., Hawes, C., Hell, R., Hetherington, A., Hofte, H., Juergens, G., Leaver, C.J., Moroni, A., Murphy, A., Oparka, K., Perata, P., Quader, H., Rausch, T., Ritzenthaler, C., Rivetta, A., Robinson, D.G., Sanders, D., Scheres, B., Schumacher, K., Sentenac, H., Slayman, C.L., Soave, C., Somerville, C., Taiz, L., Thiel, G. and Wagner, R. 2007. Plant neurobiology: no brain, no gain? Trends in Plant Science 12, pp. 135–136.
(2) Brenner, E.D., Stahlberg, R., Mancuso, S., Vivanco, J., Baluska, F. and Van Volkenburgh, E. 2006. Plant neurobiology: an integrated view of plant signaling. Trends in Plant Science 11(8), pp. 413–419.
(3) Calvo, P. and Baluška, F. 2015. Conditions for minimal intelligence across eukaryota: a cognitive science perspective. Frontiers in psychology 6, p. 1329.
(4) Van Loon, L.C. 2016. The intelligent behavior of plants. Trends in Plant Science 21(4), pp. 286–294.
(5) Marder, M. 2013. Plant intelligence and attention. Plant signaling & behavior.
(6) Marder, M. 2012. Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence. Plant Signaling & Behavior 7(11), pp. 1365–1372.
(7) Trewavas, A. 2016. Intelligence, cognition, and language of green plants. Frontiers in psychology 7, p. 588.
(8) Trewavas, A. 2017. The foundations of plant intelligence. Interface focus 7(3), p. 20160098.

(9) Trewavas, A.J. 2012. Plants are intelligent too. EMBO Reports 13(9), pp. 772–3; author reply 773.
(10) Binet, A., Simon, T. and Town, C.H. 1912. A method of measuring the development of the intelligence of young children. Lincoln, Ill.,: Courier.

 

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

DNA is DNA is DNA

A few months ago I was interviewed by Story Preservation Initiative. What started out as a nice interview about What A Plant Knows, developed into a discussion about how to feed the world, and then to a discussion about what are mistakenly called "GMOs", or what I prefer to call, the use of genetic engineering in agriculture. In most of the interviews connected to my book, I've shied away from going head on into my opinions on genetic engineering,mainly because i didn't want to shift the attention away from the book. But in this interview, when asked, I couldn't hold back any longer, and launched into a 10 minute monologue. Apparently, once I let loose, i couldn't stop.

While the interview was recorded as a discussion, it was edited into a monologue of over an hour, which you can access here. Below is the part pertaining to genetic engineering.

Monday, October 5, 2015

2015 Nobel Prize highlights importance of botanical chemistry

1600 years ago, a Chinese physician wrote in a book called "Emergency Prescriptions Kept Up One's Sleeve", that soaking a plant now known as Artemisia annua  in water, and then drinking the juice, can reduce fever. This text was rediscovered in the second half of the 20th century by a then obscure Chinese pharmacologist, Tu Youyou. Ms Tu was working on a secret project to find a novel cure for malaria. She found that artemisia extract was highly efficient in combating the malaria parasite. Her work led to the development of the drug artemisinin, which is now widely used in malaria treatment in Africa.  Ms. Tu's role in the discovery of artemisinin remained hidden from the West for most of her life. But now at the age of 85, she has been recognized with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine for her work
An illustration describing Ms Tu's work displayed during the press conference announcing the winners of the Nobel Medicine Prize. Linked from and The Telegraph: Nobel Prize for Chinese traditional medicine expert who developed malaria cure. Photo: AFP




This reminds us that many of our medicines have their roots in botany. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates described a bitter substance, now known to be salicylic acid, from willow bark that could ease aches and reduce fevers. Other cultures in the ancient Middle East also used willow bark as a medicine, as did Native Americans. Centuries later, we know salicylic acid as the chemical precursor for aspirin (which is acetylsalicylic acid), and salicylic acid itself is a key ingredient in many modern anti-acne face washes.

The Pacific Yew is a conifer found primarily in the Pacific Northwest. Its thin scaly back would probably go unnoticed if not for the fact that it contains a chemical called paclitaxel, or more commonly known as the chemotherapy drug Taxol. Taxol was discovered in the mid 1960s as part of a large-scale program to identify natural products which might be used against cancer. In 1992 Taxol was approved by the FDA for use in fighting breast, ovarian and lung (and a few other) cancers.

And what would life be like without the opium poppy, the source of morphine or codeine. The medicinal (and likely recreational) uses of opium poppy have been known for thousands of years. And the increasingly legal uses of cannabinoids in western medical protocols cannot be ignored.

These are prime examples of how a deep knowledge of botanical diversity and chemistry can lead to incredibly important applications.

Unfortunately, education towards and development of expertise in these fields over the past decades were not a priority for many universities, where plant biology outside of the study of model organisms was looked down upon. At Tel Aviv University we've recognized the importance of botanical pharmacology. As Dean of the Faculty of Life Sciences, together with the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, we have initiated a search for a botanical pharmacologist whose position will be divided between our two Faculties, between plant biology and pharmacology. Such interdisciplinary research is critical for exploiting the medicinal potential hidden in plants.